A spammer spoofed my e-mail: analysis of a spam attack
Spam, spam, spam everywhere. We all know that our mailboxes are filled with it, but usually the anti-spam filter takes care of most of it. But who is sending those e-mails filled with ads, scams and viruses?
Well, when I opened my inbox this week, I was surprised to discover, I sent them apparently!
Only apparently! I’ve never sent spam in my life and never will, no reason for that. But the 800+ e-mails in my inbox were telling a different story.
They spoofed my address
My first thought was:“Holy cow, somebody cracked in my inbox, stole my identity and sent 1000 e-mails from my account!” but it was not that - fortunately, because any consequences of an identity theft are really complicated.
What happened to me is called spoofing. Let me cite the almighty Wikipedia here:
Email spoofing is the creation of email messages with a forged sender address. […] Spam and phishing emails typically use such spoofing to mislead the recipient about the origin of the message.
In other words one or more spammers used their accounts and their e-mail servers to send an awful lot of virus-containing e-mails and wrote on them that the sender was I, even if it was not true. As explained clearly by user HopelessN00b in this thread:
They’re using spoofed sender data to generate an email that looks like it’s from your domain. It’s about as easy as putting a fake return address on a piece of postal mail, so no, there’s really no way to stop it. […] just like you can’t stop me from putting your postal address as the return address on all the death threats I mail, you can’t stop someone from putting your domain as the reply-to address on their spam.
The advantage? They hide their identity, at least a little, and a normal-looking e-mail address is far more suspicious than something like email@example.com. Also the same technique may be used to fake the sender identity as somebody the receiver knows from scams.
Why was my inbox full?
So OK, the spammer sends an e-mail and on it is written, that I am sender. But since the real sender was not my account, I had no spam e-mails in my Sent folder. My account was untouched, I just had 823 new e-mails in the inbox.
Those were 83% automatic mail-server replies. Since the spam e-mails had a malware attachment (such a classic!), a lot of server anti-virus scanners refused the spam and answered with “Banned contents alert” or “Delivery Failure Notification” warnings. Please note that I don’t know any of those users, since they are not from my address book; the spammers found them elsewhere.
The remaining 17% were answers of people who got the spam. I’ll come back on this later in the response analysis section.
Appearance of the spam e-mail
From the various user replies I could see the text of the spam message. It had small changes each time, like the signature or the list of products, but the template was one of the two:
- “Thank you for your purchase” with a transaction code and a list of bought products or
- “We confirm we received the products you returned” with same other data as above.
A rough translation/adaptation of one of them could be the following. Some details are made up by me (company name, signature etc.) in this example:
Hello, thank you for your purchase! We confirm you your transaction! Your transaction code is: U99414725D3407F0 Company: NATIONAL RUGBY FEDERATION The following objects were part of your purchase: === 1 x KIT POE VIVOTEK 12V INJECTOR+SPLITTER: 68.55 EUR 1 x UPS KRAUN POWER HUB K-600: 62.8 EUR 1 x HP SW OFFICE 2007 MLK SBE TOP VALUE GE318T: 239.94 EUR 2 x CTRL PROMISE RAID SATA FASTTRAK TX4310: 204.87*2 = 409.74 EUR 1 x NETWORK CARD KRAUN WIRELESS 54MBPS PCMCIA: 17.62 EUR 3 x NB SONY VAIO VGN-NR38M/S: 503.71*3 = 1511.13 EUR 1 x HDD EXTERNAL WD PASSPORT 2.5 120GB: 78.65 EUR 1 x PDA HP IPAQ 114 CLASSIC HANDHELD: 273.47 EUR 1 x MOUSE APC BIOMETRIC BIOM34-EC: 44.12 EUR 1 x FOLDER KRAUN 13,3 GRAY: 13.31 EUR === Total: 2719.33 EUR Please open the attachment for more information. === Tom Colombo +12 3456 78 910
So what? Could also be an authentic seller writing!
Actually… No. Just pay some attention to those details:
- nobody was expecting this e-mail which is really strange;
- no mention of your name. The company would probably know your name if you bought anything online from their store;
- it was really nothing more than in the example. Pure text! No images, no logos, no professional signatures. No professional reseller would ever send an e-mail like this.
- I don’t even know for which company does Mr. Tom Colombo work for! Just his phone number. Isn’t this strange?
- high total amount to make you anxious and stop your rational thinking (at least a little)
- invitation to open the attachment
- strange attachment name
.cabattachment format - do you really use a program that opens
.cab? Wouldn’t a
Now compare it to any real receipt or order confirmation from any online reseller (eBay, Amazon, whatever).
Analysis of the responses
I do not know how many e-mails were sent. I would say a lot since some friends of mine and even my personal account got the same spam, but apparently sent from another unlucky spoofed user. The national police department for web-crimes also wrote a warning (in italian) [here the translation by Google] about this spam attack on their home page - which means it reached many users.
The only number I have is the how many _replies_ I received back. My postmaster account received 823 e-mails. Analyzing them I got the following data:
Mail server responses
686 e-mails (83.3% of the total) containing the following errors:
- 210 user’s mailbox quota exceeded: 192 from the same e-mail provider
- 164 maximum message size exceeded: all from the same provider (I didn’t even know this was possible for e-mails that small!)
- 191 refused executable attachment for security reasons: executable or
.cabattachments are refused a priori, even before the antivirus scanned them
- 61 mailbox/recipient not found: wrong address
- 19 malware found: the server’s antivirus or anti-spam found malicious content
- 13 mailbox unavailable: not sure if is the same as wrong address, I’m putting it here
And some more unusual errors:
- 13 generic unspecified error: just “SMTP error 550”, e-mail refused with no reasons
- 5 mailbox disabled
- 2 maximum hop number exceeded
- 2 access denied
- 2 recipient address rejected
- 1 couldn’t create or rename temp file
- 1 unauthenticated sender
- 1 unknown alias
- 1 delivery time expired
Automatic mailbox responses
22 e-mails (2.7% of the total) with two kind of pre-set automatic answers:
- 14 “I’m busy at the moment, I’ll answer ASAP”
- 8 “This address is old, please refer my new one
Manual user replies
110 e-mails (14.0% of the total) where:
- 85 users said to the fake seller (spammer) that there was a mistake, that the receipt was send to the wrong address and that they have not ordered anything.
- 15 said the same as in the point above, specifying that they will (or already have) notify the police about it or sue the fake seller (spammer)
- 5 asked for clarification, they have not understood at all what the spam e-mail was about
- 5 understood it was spam and joked about it by insulting the spammer or asking for the refund’s money
It was really fun to read the replies: some were very polite and professional explaining they never ordered anything and that the fake seller (spammer) probably wrote on the wrong address. Some answer back really angry with CAPS LOCK yelling, with awful netiquette and grammar. Stuff like:
or even better
DO NOT SELL ME STAFF I DId NT BUY NOTHING STOP WRT ME I SUE YOU YOU IDIOT!!!!!1
[Grammar nazi rant section: The punctuation! The capital letters and caps lock! The grammar!! Aargh! A cat walking on the keyboard writes better than this! What do schools teach these days? People are not even able to write a dot at the end of a sentence?]
What I did about it
I called my domain provider and opened a ticket. They helped me pretty fast and activated SPF on the e-mails I send, which is nice! There is not much anyone could do about it, since the real sender is hiding pretty well.
I answered manually to all those 14% who answered the spammer a.k.a. “me” with an apology since my account got spoofed and explaining that the mail they got is spam carrying malware and not to open the attachment. Only 4 users thanked me (real me, not the fake address) for the warning. Only 4! I was really disappointed, that people are so rude.
The sad part: leveraging people’s naivety
Think about this example:
- 100 e-mails are sent from the spammer
- 50 of them gets refused by the mails servers since the attachment has a malware (automatic reply)
- 10 of the remaining 50 meet a dead-end since the user does not exists or has moved to another account (automatic reply)
- 30 of the remaining 40 are blocked by the spam filter of the user’s account and moved in a spam folder
- 5 of the remaining 10 are blocked by some anti-virus software when downloaded or opened.
- 4 of the remaining 5 are deleted by the user by hand, because it understood that is spam (clever guys/girls!)
1% reached its goal: the user was fooled by the scam and thought the e-mail was real! Some of them may even open the attachment while trying to find out what the e-mail is about and get infected.
Now think about sending 10.000.000 e-mails instead of 100 or even more, since 70% of the e-mail traffic is spam. How many infected computers you got? And there is basically nothing to stop it, except defending your self with spam filters and antivirus software and be aware of what are you reading, trying to think before clicking anything.
But of course 100% of computer users are doing that, right? Right?? [ref. PEBCAK error]
The fun part: my spoofed address… does not exist!
The spoofed address was not even mine, just another e-mail account from my domain. A non-existing one. The spammers just found my domain name somewhere somehow (it’s online, duh!) and attached a fake username in front of it. So the addresses (yes, plural) they put on the spam were something like: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org which do not exist and never did!
The answers and automatic replies to those spam e-mails were redirected to the postmaster account of my domain, that collects all the e-mails that point to some non-existing user on this domain. Thus I was able to get them.
TL;DR and moral of the story
I received 823 reply e-mails on my spoofed address, since the victims thought I sent them. 86% were server errors, 14% of them where humans replying that something is wrong, believing to the content.
I don’t know how many e-mails the spammer sent so I don’t know who has seen the spam, but some thought the e-mail was legit. Please be aware of what you read in your inbox!
Some crimes, small or big can not be stopped, but still the human stupidity/naivety is astonishing. Memento pensare!